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Petschili Issues Of German China

 
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Posted 09/26/2020   08:49 am  Show Profile Bookmark this topic Add PostmasterGS to your friends list Get a Link to this Message
Hers's another little bit of German philatelic history.

But first, let's set the scene…

Beginning in 1886, Germany opened a series of post offices in many of the major cities of China. This was done to support and promote German business interests in the territory.

In addition, in the late 1800s, China granted a series of territorial leases to Russia, England and France. Germany was anxious to join the other European powers in getting access to Chinese goods and markets, and in November 1897, used the murder of several German missionaries by Chinese nationals to invade Kiautschou (a.k.a. Tsingtao, modern Qingdao). After capturing the Chinese defense, Germany forced the Chinese to accept a 99-year German lease on the territory.

So by 1898, Germany had a "permanent" presence in Kiautschou, and German post offices throughout numerous Chinese cities.

During the same period, a society arose in China composed of Chinese citizens who were opposed to the intervention and influence of western powers in China. This society went by various names, but was known in the west as the Boxers. It would eventually have between 50,000 and 100,000 members.

In 1899, the Boxers began a campaign of violence and murder in northern China, focusing in particular on foreigners and Christians. This would begin the conflict known in the west as the Boxer Rebellion.
In June 1900, the Boxers converged on Peking. The foreigners in Peking quickly retreated to the Legation Quarter, where the foreign governments maintained their embassies and legations, and the Boxers laid siege. This action was known as the Siege of the International Legations.

In response, the Eight-Nation Alliance was formed, consisting of the U.S., India, France, Italy, Britain, Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Japan. These powers dispatched forces to defeat the Boxers and relieve the siege of the Legation Quarter. Germany contributed approximately 1,100 men and 5 warships to China to the relief expedition, with most being sailors and marines that were stationed in Kiautschou. This contribution was largely dwarfed by that of the other European powers.

To take advantage of the situation, however, Germany sent a much larger contingent (approximately 11,000 troops) as the Ostasiatischen Expeditionskorps (East Asian Expedition Corps). These troops didn't arrive until after the siege had been lifted. They then carried out a 4-month long series of punitive expeditions (35 in total) throughout northern China to further put down the Boxers.

To the philately…

With the sudden influx of Germans into the territory, postage became a problem. Germany had not yet even issued postage for use in Kiautschou, much less sufficient stocks to support an army. The only postage available in Kiautschou was a limited run of provisional overprints (the Tsingtau Provisionals — more on those later!).

The German forces were therefore allowed to use unoverprinted, unaltered German postage while in China. These became known as the Petschili Issues, after the name of the territory (North Zhili, romanized as Pei Chih-li, was a province of Imperial China that included Peking parts of Northern China). All are distinguishable from normal German usages only by their cancellations, and most come from the large stocks of postage kept on the transports that delivered the troops to China.

Michel catalogs three types, based solely on the underlying German sets:

1. Krone/Alder (Crown/Eagle) — German Krone/Adler stamps of 1889-1900
2. Germania — German small and large Germania stamps of 1900.
3. Kiautschou — Kiautschou Yacht Issues of 1901

Legitimate Petschili uses of the Krone/Adler and Germania stamps should be from either a Feldpost (Field Post) Station or from the permanent German post offices in the war territories (typically Shanghai, Tientsin, or Peking), between 1 September 1900 and 1902.

Feldpostexpedition Tientsin (1 September 1900 - 31 August 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 1 (24 November 1900 - 4 July 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 2, Peking (11 September 1900 - 31 August 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 3, Yangtsun (2 September 1900 - 30 April 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 4, Tongku (2 September 1900 - 31 August 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 5, Tientsin (3 September 1900 - 7 November 1900)
Feldpoststation No. 6, Tsingtschou (18 April 1901 - 4 May 1901), Fouping (5 May 1901 - 16 May 1901), Langtsouanking (17 May 1901 - 25 May 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 7, Potingfu (2 November 1900 - 25 July 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 8, Shanghaikuan (26 November 1900 - 31 August 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 9, Peithaho (22 May 1901 - 31 August 1901)
Feldpoststation No. 10, Kaiping (21 May 1901 - 31 August 1901), Taku Südfort (9 November 1900 - 1 January 1901)

Legitimate Petschili uses of the Kiautschou Yachts should be from Feldpoststation Nr. 2 or the Peking P.O., mainly from April-November 1901.

With regard to all cancels, however, numerous exceptions to the "proper" post offices exist, as the philatelic value was recognized at the time, and due to the military situation, regulation was lax. Cancels from almost all German post offices in China are known.

Viewing the sets as a whole, the Krone/Adler Petschili Issues are the rarest, though by catalog value they aren't as valuable as some of the larger Yacht Issues. Michel catalogs seven face values, with two of those having several color variations, for a total of 11 issues. Only one is common (CV 150€), and it was the one value (2 Pf) that's wasn't sold in China. It appears that copies were sent en masse to China for philatelic reasons, which would explain their availability, lower CV, and propensity to have cancels that indicate philatelic usage. The remainder are ridiculously hard to find.

I don't own any Krone/Adler Petschili Issues at the moment, so for demonstration purposes, here's a copy that just went unsold at auction this week with a starting price of 2,000€. It's a 10 pfennig value of the Krone/Adler series, with Michel CV undetermined.

MiNr. P V ac/e, canceled in Peking on 18 January 1901

I do, however, have a fairly complete collection of the Germania (MiNr. P V series). I'm only missing 4 stamps, of which one is common (P V a), one is fairly common (P V k II), and two are practically impossible to find (P V da and P V m). The 5 Mark value is rare because there was little use for that denomination, and the 25 Pfennig is rare because it wasn't among the stocks transported to China, so the only copies are those carried by individual soldiers.

Hers's an example and the album pages.

MiNr. P V aa, canceled in Tsingtau, 14 August 1901


As to the Kiautschou Yacht Petschili issues (MiNr. P VI series), I'm only missing one value — the 1 Mark. It's fairly common, and I just missed out on one at auction this week. The pages shown below show two additional missing values — those stamps are en route from Germany as we speak! Again, here's a sample and the album pages.

MiNr. P VI n, canceled in Peking, 29 May 1901

To see these collections on my website, see here for the Germanias and here for the Yachts.

So if you have some of the proper German or Kiautschou postage and you haven't checked the postmarks, I would encourage you to do so. You could have a valuable one on your hands.
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Presenting the GermanStamps.net Collection - Germany, Colonies, & Occupied Territories, 1872-1945
Edited by PostmasterGS - 09/26/2020 08:51 am

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Posted 09/26/2020   3:57 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add OzwaldO to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
History is fun with stamps! Amazing, thanks!
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Posted 09/26/2020   4:46 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add EMaxim to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Beautiful presentation, Postmaster. Appreciate the historical intro just as much. The history behind the stamps is at least half the reason I collect.
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Posted 09/27/2020   07:03 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add perf12 to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
What are the % of forged cancels?
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Posted 09/27/2020   07:33 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add cupram to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Thank you PostmasterGS,
Of course I started checking the cancellations on the Deutsche Reich stamps. I haven't found it yet and I don't think so. I remember I had one with "TSIN ..." cancel.
But on the occasion of this search I realized that I have different shades for 3 pfg Mi # 45 and I found a plate flaw (constant??) not registered in Michel.




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Posted 09/27/2020   07:53 am  Show Profile Check 51studebaker's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add 51studebaker to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Good stuff PostmasterGS, thank you.
Don
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Posted 09/27/2020   6:45 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add PostmasterGS to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
What are the % of forged cancels?


Not sure why, but there aren't many.
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Edited by PostmasterGS - 09/27/2020 6:46 pm
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Posted 09/27/2020   6:58 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add PostmasterGS to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
cupram,

That plate flaw is not listed by Michel, which means it's probably not a consistent flaw across the printings. It's more likely to be a piece of debris on a single printing.

That's a nice color variety. Michel lists 8 varieties, and I think you have 5 or 6 there, but several of them can be tough to distinguish. I have Jäschke-Lantelme's book that includes color guides for these, and I still can't tell the difference in some of them. I need to send mine off for certification, but I don't have them with me in Japan.
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Posted 09/27/2020   11:35 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Andyrich74 to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Very nice and informative post here Postmaster. Well done and thank you.
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Posted 09/28/2020   11:37 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add floortrader to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Nice pages and well written up .
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Posted 09/28/2020   12:46 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add EMaxim to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
I have Jäschke-Lantelme's book that includes color guides for these


Could you provide the full title? And does it matter how recent the edition?
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Posted 09/28/2020   1:27 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add GeoffHa to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Some German personalities associated with the Boxer Rebellion. Larger cards from an Ogden's series with the adopted title of Boer War, Boxer Rebellion and Miscellaneous, issued c1902.




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Posted 09/28/2020   7:34 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add PostmasterGS to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
Could you provide the full title? And does it matter how recent the edition?

The book is Pfennige, Pfennig und Krone/Adler, Die Briefmarkenausgaben des deutschen Kaiserreichs (Michel-Nr. 31-52), by Michael Jäschke-Lantelme.

The book covers the "Pfennige" (MiNr. 31-38, Scott 29-36), "Pfennig" (MiNr. 39-44, Scott 37-42), and "Krone/Adler" (MiNr. 45-50 & 52, Scott 45-51) series in extreme detail, and most importantly, includes color plates showing the various shades.

There is only one edition, 2004. There's currently a copy available on Philabooks for 87€ / US$106.

On a side note, Herr Jäschke-Lantelme is a BPP expertizer for Germany up to about 1915 (MiNr. 97, Scott 95) and all of the colonies and post office abroad. He has published several great German reference works, but his best are this one and his similar work on the Germanias (MiNr. 53-97), which includes similar color plates for those series. The Germania book is very hard to find, though, and the price tends to reflect that when you do find a copy.
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Posted 09/29/2020   07:59 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add cupram to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Thank you PostmasterGS
-I found that Michel does not record all the constant plate flaws and that's why I post what I find in the hope that another collector can confirm the existence of a similar one.
I have Michel Color Guide but it is very difficult for me to identify the colors.
I wonder what the probability is, that an expert will correctly identify the color.
I think that for 3 stamps in the lot I identified the correct color.


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