This cancellation is from the playing card manufacturer Samuel Hart of Philadelphia. It was used on decks of cards marketed under the name Charles Bartlet. Thus the C.B. These decks mimicked playing cards of the New York playing card manufacturer, Caleb Bartlett (note the difference in spelling) that had been produced from 1815 to 1845.
You can read more in the Samuel Hart entry in the the recent outstanding publication by Michael J. Morrissey entitled Printed Proprietary Precancellations on First Issue U.S. Revenue Stamps, 1862-1872.