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Nederland – Netherlands 1976 – 2001 Crouwel (Numbers)

 
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/10/2021   08:39 am  Show Profile Bookmark this topic Add NSK to your friends list Get a Link to this Message
Design

In 1976, the Dutch state communications company, PTT, issued "permanent" stamps in a new design. This showed a large number in the top left corner of the design indicating the amount of postage the stamp prepaid set against a gradated background in a single colour. The number itself had the same colour with the gradation in reverse direction. At the top right of the design, reversed out of the background, appears a small "c" indicating the value is in cent (plural centen), being 1/100th of a guilder (Dutch: gulden, often indicated by "fl" for florijn). At the bottom in the basic colour of the design appears the word "nederland."


Crouwel permanent series design

The stamps were designed by the Dutch designer Wim Crouwel (1928 – 2019). Consequently, they are known to philatelists as Crouwel stamps. Wim Crouwel studied graphic arts in his birthplace, Groningen, and typography in Amsterdam. He designed several fonts including New Alphabet. From 1964, Crouwel was responsible for designing posters and catalogues for the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. He also was involved in designing the Dutch pavilion at the 1970 World Expo in Osaka, Japan.

Ca. 1974, typewriter producer Olivetti commissioned Wim Crouwel to design a new font for its electric typewriters. Olivetti named it Politene. Olivetti abandoned the project because demand for their typewriters had declined. Crouwel regained the rights to his font and adapted it for his commission by PTT to design a series of permanent stamps. This font is known as Gridnik, a nickname given to Wim Crouwel because of his frequent use of grids in his designs.

Wim Crouwel also designed other stamps, including those issued to advertise the Amsterdam Philatelic Exhibition of 1977, Amphilex '77.

Note: The orange colour of the title is the Dutch national colour. The colour refers to our royal family. They descend from William "the Silent." William was born into the House of Nassau, in the German Rhineland Palatinate. In 1544, he inherited the title Prince of Orange in present-day France. He led the Dutch revolt against the King of Spain that led to our independence from Spain.
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/10/2021   1:00 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Values

The stamps were in use contemporaneously with those of the permanent series showing the effigy of Queen Juliana, and from 1981, Queen Beatrix. They served as make-up values or covered the rates for printed matters and postcards that were lower than the basic rate for inland carriage of a letter. The basic set comprises eleven values ranging from 5c to 80c.


Crouwel permanent series sheet stamps

The first stamps were available from two machine-vended stamp books issued on 10 March 1976. These were the make-up values of 5c and 10c, and the 40c prepaying the inland carriage of postcards and printed matters in card format. The 5c covered the difference between that rate and the basic inland rate for other printed matters up to 20 grammes in weight. The 10c made up the difference between the general printed-matters rate and the basic inland rate for carriage of letters up to 20 grammes.

The stamps were not issued in sheet format until June 1976; the exact date of issue is unknown. These were the make-up values of 5c, 10c, and 25c. The 40c stamp prepaying the postcard rate became available in September 1976. The 45c prepaying the general printed-matters rates was issued in sheets in November 1976.

These tariffs were raised by 5 cents on 7 January 1978. Originally, the increase had been planned for 1 January 1978. Consequently, a new 50c value was required to cover the general printed-matters rate. The 45c, now, covered the postcard rate. This new 50c stamp was issued shortly before the rates increase. Stamps from stamp rolls were sold before the official issue date in Groningen.

In 1981 the basic inland letter rate had risen to 65 cents. In June 1981, 55c and 60c Crouwel stamps replaced the existing stamps with the effigy of former Queen Juliana. She had abdicated on 30 April 1980 and was succeeded by her oldest daughter Beatrix. As many June issue dates exist as there exist listings.

A further increase in the basic letter rate from 70 cents to 75 cents ensued on 1 July 1986. In August 1986, the 65c stamp Crouwel stamp was issued. The final two values of 70c and 80c were issued in June 1991. At time it was issued, the 80c stamp prepaid the basic inland rate for carriage of letters up to 20 grammes.
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/10/2021   4:11 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Coil stamps

All values were also available from rolls of stamps. Many post office counters were equipped with dispensers that held rolls of the most used stamps. These made it easy for counter staff to detach the required number of stamps without having to go through a counter stock book and tear up a counter sheet.

The Crouwel coil stamps were made available around the same time as the corresponding sheet stamps. They, easily, can be recognised by the imperforate top and bottom sides.


Crouwel permanent series coil stamps

Every fifth stamp on the roll has a black number printed on the back that indicates the number of stamps left on the coil.


Crouwel permanent series numbered coil stamps
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/11/2021   09:13 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Two types of the 25c stamp

There are two types of the 25c stamp. These differ in the length of the base of the "2" in the value. On the stamps identified as type I by the NVPH catalogue, the base is 6 3/4 mm long. On the stamps identified as type II it is 7 1/2 mm long. The two types can be distinguished by looking at the vertical line of the first "d" in nederland.

On type-I stamps, the base of the "2" stops short of the vertical line of the "d." On type-II stamps, the base of the "2" extends to the vertical line of the "d."


Crouwel permanent series 25c type I (top) and type II (bottom)

The stamps from counter sheets and rolls exist with both type I and type II values.


Crouwel permanent series 25c sheet and coil stamps type I & II
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/11/2021   7:13 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Stamps from stamp books

All but the 25c, 65c, and 80c values were issued from machine-vended booklets. The stamp book panes had imperforate top and bottom edges. Some books also had an imperforate righthand edge.



Stamp book 22c

Stamps from these booklets are distinguishable by having one imperforate side or two adjoining imperforate sides. There is a total of 20 different such stamps.


Crouwel permanent series booklet stamps

Below table lists the stamp books and the stamps contained in them. The numbers are the official issue numbers that appear on the stubs of the panes and NVPH catalogue PB (postzegelboekje) numbers.

B = imperforate at bottom
BR = imperforate at bottom and right
T = imperforate at top
TR = imperforate at top and right
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Netherlands
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Posted 12/12/2021   10:29 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Printing

The stamps were printed in photogravure by Joh. Ensched้ on phophorised paper without watermark. They have polyvinyl alcohol gum with added dextrin. They were perforated 12 3/4 x 13 1/2. The phosphor coating gives off a yellow afterglow after irradiation with both a shortwave and longwave Leuchtturm (Lighthouse) ultraviolet lamp.


Crouwel shortwave ultraviolet afterglow

I found that all my stamps have a similar fluorescent reaction, except for the 25c type-II sheet stamp. Below image shows the difference in fluorescence under a longwave Leuctturm (Lighthouse) ultraviolet lamp.


Crouwel fluorescent reaction

The sheet stamp shows a stronger reaction to shortwave ultraviolet light. This may explain the lack of brightness from the fluorescent reaction. The phosphor absorbs the ultraviolet light.
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Posted 12/12/2021   1:06 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Self-adhesive stamps

On 16 June 2001, the 5c, 10c, and 25c stamps were issued in self-adhesive format. These stamps were printed in gravure by the British printing firm Walsall Security Printers Ltd. They have die-cut perforation gauge 14. The self-adhesive 25c stamp only exists as type II.


Crouwel permanent series self-adhesive stamps

The stamps were issued in cards of ten stamps of a single value: four stamps on one side and six on the other side of the card. The 5c and 10c stamps also exist from "mailers" of 50 stamps. These were printed on one side of the card. PTTPost applied deeper die cutting to punch out individual stamps for collectors.


Crouwel permanent series self-adhesive backing paper

The stamps were printed on OBA-free paper with gradated yellow phosphor tagging on the left side of the stamp.



Crouwel longwave ultraviolet reaction

In 1902, twelve member-countries of the European Union, together with four other states adopted the euro as a common currency. The rate of exchange for the Dutch guilder was set at HFL 2.20371 to the euro. A rule of thumb is to divide by two and subtract a tenth. Both currencies were in circulation contemporaneously in January 2002. The stamps remained valid until 31 October 2013.
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Posted 12/22/2021   4:14 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add NSK to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Typo: 1902 should be 2002.
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