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Far Eastern Republic and Amur Province  
 

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Posted 08/27/2011   11:46 am  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this topic Add BeeSee to your friends list Get a Link to this Message
I have been trying to establish a timeline for the Far Eastern Republic, and here is what I have so far:


  • 1920: Amur Province occupied by the Bolsheviks, February 6, with Blagoveshchensk as the capital. Stamps issued.

  • 1920: Chita in Transbaikal occupied by the Cossaks. Stamps issued.

  • 1920: Far Eastern Republic established on 6 April, intended as a buffer state between Russia and Japan. It is initially composed of the Transbaikal region, with the the capital being Verkho-Udinsk. Stamps issued.

  • 1920: Japan recognizes the Far Eastern Republic, July 15.

  • 1920: Amur Province, Chukotka and Kamchatka added to F.E.R. in August.

  • 1920: The F.E.R. capital moves to Chita in November, after the Cossaks expelled.

  • 1920: Priamur and Maritime regions join F.E.R. in December.

  • 1921: New constitution written and approved, April 27.

  • 1921: A coup in the Priamur and Maritime regions by the rightist White Russians, backed by Japan, establishes the separtist Provisional Government of Priamur in May. Stamps issued, but still inscribed "Far Eastern Republic".

  • 1922: The Japanese exit Priamur and Maritime region in the summer.

  • 1922: The army of the Far Eastern Republic, commanded by the Russian Red Army retakes the Priamur and the city of Vladivostok on 25 October 1922. Stamps issued.

  • 1922: The Far Eastern Republic was absorbed by Soviet Russia in November.



However, there is sort of a mystery with the stamps issued by the Province of Amur. Shown below is Scott #46. The inscription in Russian around the center translates to "Amur Province postage stamp". It described as being a "Blagoveshchensk" issue, which was the capital of the province.



Scott says the stamp was issued in 1921, which was well after the Bolsheviks allowed the province to join the far eastern Republic.

Doe anyone know if the Scott date is an error? What does Gibbons list, or other catalogs?

Here are a couple of maps showing the location of the F.E.R.





The light green is the Kamchatka region.
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BeeSee in BC
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Edited by BeeSee - 09/01/2011 2:40 pm

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Posted 08/27/2011   2:58 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Thanks Bayern. So Michel lists the Amur under it's own heading, and not under Far Eastern Republic?

October 1920 still seems a late for the issue. Perhaps they were never placed in regular use due to the province becoming part of FER in August?

After all, the only "used" copies I have seen are the remainders cancelled with crayon or black bars (like my example shown).

Here is the flag of FER:

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BeeSee in BC
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Posted 08/27/2011   3:29 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add nigelc to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
SG lists the Civil War issues with the following structure:

Russian Civil War Issues

- North West Russia [numbered from 1]
- - Northern Army
- - North Western Army
- - Western Army

- Siberia [numbered from 1]
- - Siberia: Government of Admiral Kolchak
- - Transbaikal Province: Regime of the Ataman Semyonov
- - Amur Province: Communist Regime
- - Far Eastern Republic
- - Priamur and Maritime Provinces: Anti-Bolshevist Government
- - Soviet Union: Issue for the Far East

- South Russia [numbered from 1]
- - Kuban Territory: Cossack Government
- - Don Territory: Cossack Government
- - Crimea: Regional Government
- - South Russia: Government of General Denikin
- - South Russia: Government of General Wrangel
- - Gorskaya ASSR

- Czechoslovakia Army in Siberia [numbered from 1]

- White Russia (Belorussia) [no stamps listed]

- Russian Refugees Post [numbered from 1]





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Edited by nigelc - 08/27/2011 3:31 pm
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Posted 08/27/2011   4:49 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add nigelc to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Well done BeeSee for clarifying the history for us as much as you have.

It's a fascinating period but quite hard to work out who was doing what and why. Many years ago I read "The White Generals" by Luckett which was the first book I'd seen on the white armies and their commanders. You might find that useful if you can find a copy.

It seems very hard to get precise dates for when things happened and I wonder if a lot of this is caused by the confusion between old style and new style dates (as in the famous example of the October Revolution which took place in November in the new calendar).

SG says, "In February 1920, a People's Revolutionary Committee set up an administration at Blagovechensk, which acknowledged the authority of the Far Eastern Republic in the summer of 1920." They also give October 1920 for the date of issue.

Dr Ceresa estimated that only 200 to 300 of each value were used postally. He stated that it was believed these stamps were issued in October but the earliest use he had seen was 12th December 1920.

I sold my Russian Civil War collection many years ago (sadly) but I still have four "used" Amur stamps. In each case you can still see signs of the faint coloured crayon marking used on the remainders before someone tried to improve them with a CDS cancellation.

Perhaps I can add a little to what you say about Semyonov (ataman of the cossacks in Chita who tried to take on the mantle of Kolchak).

The FER army under Eiche took control of Chita in October 1920 forcing Semyonov's forces to withdraw to the Maritime Province where he continued fighting, finally quitting Russia in September 1921.

Here's a typical photogaph of the general/ataman/warlord/adventurer Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov:



I see from Wikipedia that he was aged just 30 in 1920!
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Nigel
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Posted 08/27/2011   7:37 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Excellent information Nigel, thank you! Things are starting to fall in place for my understanding.
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Posted 08/28/2011   12:52 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add rod222 to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Comforting to see others with troubles understanding this
area of philately :)
A great post, and nice to see Kamchatka isolated on the globe map
I have never seen that before.

Excellent work there BeeSee.
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Posted 08/28/2011   03:55 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add vasia to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Very nice effort, BeeSee. I greatly enjoyed it!

Here is the information on this issue provided by Ivo Steyn in an article in the Rossica Journal:



If the date of issue of the subsequent - FER issue (DVR overprints) provided by Steyn is correct (i.e late November 1920), it would leave a brief interval of time for legitimate use of these stamps. This might explain the scarcity of used specimens.

In a subsequent article in PostRider journal #19 (November 1986), Ivo Steyn provides some additional reasoning and information regarding this matter:





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Edited by vasia - 07/28/2017 10:46 am
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Posted 08/28/2011   05:31 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add rod222 to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

On a broader, non philatelic canvas,
information from "The Penguin Atlas of World History"
which helps me understand part of the backgound to the stamps.

1918-20 The Rus. Civil War:

1918 Formation of socially and politically diverse anti-Bolshevist groups (the 'Whites').
They fought against the Red Army, organized by TROTSKY (p. Ill, commissar for nat.
defence from Apr. 1918), in Siberia and the Ural-Volga area (Admiral KOLCHAK, the
Czech Legion), in s. Russia Generals DENIKIN, KRASNOV, VRANGEL), in
Estonia (General YUDENICH) and N. Russia (General MILLER). To safeguard their
interests, the Allies landed troops in Vladivostok, Murmansk, Archangel and the ports of
the Black Sea.

1919 The 'Whites' rejected President WILSON'S proposal for a conference of all Rus.
parties (Feb.). The plan for a 'crusade' by the Fr. Marshal FOCH was rejected by the
Allied Supreme Command. For this reason, the Allies withdrew their troops. The threats
to Petrograd (YUDENICH), Moscow (DENIKIN) and the Volga (KOLCHAK) were
eliminated by the counter-offensives of the Red Army.

1919-20 Russo-Pol. War (p. 155).

1920 Evacuation of the last 'White' troops from the Crimea (Nov.).

Causes for the collapse of the 'Whites':
1. The lack of cooperation and their reactionary-restorative attitudes (absence of an
agrarian reform programme);
2. Conflicting Allied views over the question of intervention.
Consequences of the war: Leninist centralism was imperilled by the
1921 Petrograd strike (and the sailors' mutiny at Kronstadt, which was suppressed by the
assault of the Red Army under General MICHAEL TUKHACHEVSKY
(1893-1937 (executed for a presumed anti-STALiN plot)).
1917 21 Collapse of the econ. system of 'war Communism': the socialization
(nationalization) of all means of production and cen. planning of the economy led to an
econ. crisis. After

1921 the establishment of the 'gvtl planning commission' (GOSPLAN: coordination of
the economy), LENIN was forced,

1921, at the 10th Party Congress, to introduce the New Econ. Policy (N.E.P.). It meant
the return to capitalistic forms of econ. life ('state capitalism'): peasants taxed by goods in
kind; tariff-free
The Inter-War Period/U.S.S.R. I (1918-24) 143
domestic trade; admission of private entrepreneurs and for. capital. For. trade, major
industries and construction projects remained in the control of the state. However, the
R.S.F.S.R. now obtained int. recognition:

1921 Friendship treaty with Persia (p. 168), trade agreements with Britain and Germany;

1922 The Rapallo Treaty (p. 165), followed by de jure recognition by Britain, Italy and
France '(1924).

The dictatorship of the Com. party was strengthened through the
1921 prohibition of all opposing groups within the party. Trade unions were placed under
the control of the party and lost their controlling function over the economy.

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Posted 08/28/2011   12:37 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Another area solved!

Superb information Vasia and Rod!! That is what makes this forum so great!
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BeeSee in BC
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Posted 08/28/2011   1:06 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add vasia to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
To complete the picture I should add the following:

In an article in Post Rider #20 (1987), based on material provided by other collectors, Ivo Steyn made slight corrections to the information laid out in Post Rider #19 (see above). The DVR oveprints (Scott 2-36) might have been used starting as early as late November 1920 and in areas outside "the immediate environs of Vladivostok", as far north as Khabarovsk.

These corrections do not alter the following fact: areas of the Far Eastern Republic to the west of Khabarovsk (including the Amur oblast, Chita, etc) did not have the DVR overprints available for use in 1920-1921. They had, therefore, to rely on revalued stocks of Imperial issues or, in the case of the Amur oblast, on the Blagoveshchensk issue.

This allows, in fact, for a more extended period of use of the Blagoveshchensk issue, extending into 1921. Ivo Steyn has written an article on this stamp issue in the British Journal of Russian Philately #69 (1990), providing the illustrations of some covers used in Amur during this period. Unfortunately, there is no electronic database of this journal.
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Posted 08/28/2011   1:28 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add nigelc to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Hi vasia,

Thanks for making reference to Ivo Stein's articles on the Blagovechensk issue in BJRP - I'd completely forgotten about them.

In Issue #69 he listed nine known covers and money orders (mostly money orders and telegraphic money orders but there is one registered letter identified!) with the earliest usage on 6th December (on a money order) and the latest on 21st May 1921 (on the registered latter).

In his follow-up article in Issue #71 he showed a letter from the village of Konstantinovka in Amur Oblast to Blagovechensk with a 30 rub. stamp postmarked 26th August 1920.


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Nigel
Edited by nigelc - 08/28/2011 5:28 pm
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Posted 08/28/2011   1:53 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
I found a October 1920 cover on the internet:

I wugged the image in case it goes away.



http://www.armeniazemstvo.com/2011/...unusual.html
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Posted 08/28/2011   1:54 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add vasia to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Very interesting, Nigel. Thank you! I wish I had access to that article or (more generally) to the issues of the BJRP.
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Posted 08/28/2011   8:33 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
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Posted 08/28/2011   9:21 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add rod222 to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
Superb information Vasia and Rod! That is what makes this forum so great!


You deserve the praise BeeSee, just in tackling this topic,
I wouldn't be game

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Posted 08/28/2011   9:54 pm  Show Profile Check BeeSee's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add BeeSee to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
It is teamwork Rod
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