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The 1972-1978 Caricature And Landscape Issue Of Canada

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6529 Posts
Posted 01/10/2019   1:10 pm  Show Profile Check 51studebaker's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add 51studebaker to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

...As I said the judgement of the UV-reaction of used and/or washed-off stamps is highly NOT reliable! OBA's coming from the enveloppes, from other stamps that were washed off simultaneously, etc...

Quoted for truth. Optical brighteners can also be found in dishwashing liquids, stamps which have been soaked using a drop or two of dish washing liquid can cause confusion.

You might take a look at the work that has been done on US tagged stamps here
Mark has diligently been populating a large database which now has 9700 tagged US stamps.
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Posted 01/10/2019   1:23 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add wert to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Very good read Don
Go there guys..A lot of credible information.
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Posted 01/10/2019   2:08 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Galeoptix to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

I have seen your subdividing fluorescence in relation to several commemoratives in the late 1960-ies/early 1970-ies. I do not have many stamps of that period [yet]. As I said my main interest right now is the paper wire structure and I think with having enough material it should be possible to get a grip on it.

Starting with a few of your ribbed papers :)

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Posted 01/10/2019   6:21 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Anthraquinone to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
When I worked in the paper industry for about 15 years ago the paper makers were only concerned with the visual "whiteness" of the paper although that was measured by instrument. Optical brighteners were added to the pulp in varying amounts during each working day depending on the "greyness" of the pulp at a given time. As the OBA all had a fluorescent action - that is how they work the fluorescent of the paper being produced could also vary form day to day in what the manufacturers would consider one lot of paper.

I have always taken the view that unless the fluorescence can be tied to a specific printing then it is just a random by-product of the paper making and has no philatelic significance.

Obviously people should collect what they like irrespective of what others say but assigning many different levels of fluorescence a separate label and hence monetary values seems totally pointless. And has been said above fluorescence of stamps soaked of paper has no significance at all.

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Posted 01/10/2019   6:34 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Anthraquinone to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Another topic I always wonder about is the colour of the basic paper. We all know that some papers go brown with age and the rate that they do so is greatly affected by pulp used plus storage and atmospheric conditions.

When I see of stamps described with different papers based on shade listed I always wonder what these stamps looked like as they came off the press and if they have changed over the years since then.

As far as I know this is an unanswerable question.

What would be interesting would be if there is any info re the specifications that the printers used when they bought the paper. That would perhaps set some limits to the varition that could originally exist.

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Posted 01/11/2019   11:32 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Galeoptix to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

good to hear your experienced voice!

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Posted 01/11/2019   11:37 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Galeoptix to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

"A cream coloured vertical wove paper that appears to have a distinct multi-directional weave pattern, that nonetheless appears predominantly vertical when stamps and blocks are held up to a strong back light. Under magnification the paper has a smooth, finished surface, with no loose fibres and no visible porosity. On this paper, you can usually see some of the mesh pattern through the gum.

A similar paper to #1 above, except that the mesh pattern appears predominantly horizontal when viewed against strong back light.

A whiter, horizontal wove paper, that shows very light vertical ribbing through the gum, and a clear vertical mesh pattern when viewed through back lighting. This paper has a clear surface coating, no loose fibres or porosity on the surface. "

I can not see what you mean by "wove", "mesh"and " multi-directional weave pattern" ????

The paper wire is always woven with a "weave pattern" that is horizontal/vertical. The pattern or binding is either "linen" [since 1850] or "twill" [since 1938] or "complex" [since 1972].

Can you show the weave patterns?

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Edited by Galeoptix - 01/11/2019 11:39 am
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Posted 01/11/2019   2:42 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Brixtonchrome to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Hi Rein

I will have to make a sketch and scan and upload next week, as I am tied up today finishing my business plan. But the gist is that the paper weave can appear to run predominantly in one direction or another, and sometimes can exhibit no apparent pattern at all. So, the mesh is the distinct "grain" that is visible when the stamp is face down, the weave pattern is what we see when we hold the stamp up to a strong light that shines through it. The weave direction refers to how the paper naturally bends and offers the least resistance. So a stamp on vertical wove paper will bend most easily from side to side, and will offer resistance if you attempt to gently bend it between your thumb and index finger in the horizontal direction. Conversely a stamp on horizontal wove paper will bend most easily from top to bottom.

In terms of philatelic significance, I understand the thinking that these are random variations. But, I would submit that when you study large numbers of stamps, you see a lot of uniformity across very large numbers of stamps, which suggests that the varieties are much, much less random than you might think. One thing that has to be considered with Canadian stamps as compared to say, British Commonwealth issues printed by De La Rue, Waterlow or Bradbury Wilkinson is that Canadian definitives were printed more or less continuously throughout their life, whereas the Commonwealth issues were produced in discrete runs when requisitioned on a regular schedule. Thus, in a print run of 800-900 million as would have been the case for the low values of this series, it is not unreasonable to me that there could be as many as 30 varieties of paper. But as John says, it has to be a matter of personal preference if you want to go that deep or not. I do agree that generally most varieties do not command a premium, but some should, because they are genuinely scarce. But even if they weren't, what you are paying for in that case is the dealer spending the time and effort to make available to you that specific variety, and eliminating the need for you to purchase entire assemblages of material just to get that one. That should not be forgotten, I think.
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Posted 01/11/2019   4:56 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Galeoptix to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

thank you for your explanation.

To me it is obvious that the first we need to establish in paper matters is the direction of paper [the grain, mesh] which is in 99.99% of the case possible.

The wire structure - whether coming from a linen-binding or a twill-binding practically always will have a higher density of the threads across the grain, than the threads parallel to the grain. Having the direction of paper vertically in your stamps, the density of the bindings [hor./vert.] will usually be some 30/18, 24/18 threads/cm.

Sometimes the vertical threads are more prominent, sometimes the horizontal ones ... "Ribbing" usually comes from relatively thicker threads [horizontal versus vertical or the other way around]. Ribbed paper in itself does not exist, it either comes from actions later on in the process of paper-making or it is part of the watermarks.

There is NO rule for the wire-side of the paper to be on the gummed side of a stamp! Quite often the felt-side was gummed and the wire-side printed.

Curling doesn't always have their axis along the direction of paper. Quite often stamps that were printed reel-fed still show the "bending" of the paper as is was stored in reels.

The watermark does not always come from a "dandy-roll", it may be found at the wire-side as well coming from Dickinson paper-machines.

BTW, I found a 1c Admiral with scroll that looked like it came from a coil having only vertical perforations and 3 double black bars horizontally. I would have expected the direction of paper to be horizontal! However, the grain is vertical which means the "coil" [if it were a coil] was made up from single sheets!

This is new to me, but probably not to you :)


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Posted 01/12/2019   08:49 am  Show Profile Check CanadaStamp's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add CanadaStamp to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

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Posted 01/12/2019   08:51 am  Show Profile Check CanadaStamp's eBay Listings Bookmark this reply Add CanadaStamp to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply

Note: officially - the stamp design is shown as a "portrait" by Canada Post.

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Edited by CanadaStamp - 01/12/2019 08:52 am
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Posted 01/12/2019   11:21 am  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add jamesw to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
ha ha ha! Thanks for pointing that out CanadaStamp (and humouring me, I guess). I did send a letter to the editor of Unitrade with my 'issues'. We'll see what happens.
Sorry, didn't mean to distract from this excellent and informative thread. Carry on!.
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Posted 01/15/2019   8:31 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add Brixtonchrome to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
This week, I begin my series of detailed posts about the stamps of this fascinating definitive issue, with a discussion of the type differences found on the medium value landscape stamps from the series. Last week in my overview, I already discussed the differences on the 10c, but I will repeat them again here just so that everything is included in one easy to find post. I will also discuss the constant varieties that are listed in Unitrade, most of which result from colour shifts, but some of which are constant plate flaws.

Type Differences On The Landscape Designs

Except for the 20c prairies, all of the stamps from the 10c to 50c were printed using 2 plates, while the 10c was printed using 3 plates. In some cases, such as with the 25c, the two plates found are plate 1 and plate 2, with no plate 2 having been used. Usually, in the case of the 10c, 15c and 25c, the change from plate 1 to plate 2 brought with it, small, but distinct differences in the inking of the designs which have come to be known as the "types". In the case of the 50c, the two known type differences are both found on plate 1, which might explain why Gibbons does not recognize it as a legitimate type difference in the way that they do with other values.

The 10c Forests Stamp

On the 10c forests design, there are actually three layers of colour:

1. An orange layer of sunset in the background.
2. A grey green layer of trees in the background, and
3. A dark green layer of foliage which has been engraved over top of the grey-green.

On type 1, the green background behind and around the word Canada is clearly cross-hatched. On type 2, this same shading appears much darker, and appears to be solidly inked, though it actually is not - it is still cross hatched, but spaced so close together as to appear solid.

In addition to the type differences that are listed in Unitrade, there is also evidence that different photogravure screens were used to print the stamps. This can be seen most clearly, by looking at the lettering and the numerals, and the two trees at centre left. On some stamps, the lettering and trees appear almost solidly inked. On others you can see evidence of the printing being made up of tiny dots, but the dots merge and form almost a solid mass of colour. Still, on other stamps from some of the scarcer printings I might add, you can see very clear screening dots that are distinct and separate from one another. Generally speaking the solid inking only appears on type 2 stamps, while the semi-solid inking appears only on type 1 stamps, and the dotted inking can be found on both types.

Below I show you two close up-scans of these differences, first on the stamps of type 1 and then on the stamps of type 2:

If you look at the stamp on the left you can see that all the photogravure portions of the green ink appear as clear dots. On the right you can tell that the printing is made up from fine dots, but at the same time it also has a somewhat solid appearance. These stamps are both type 1.

On the left you can see that the green printing is comprised of dots and the letters in "postes/postage" appear incomplete and broken. However, the orange appears much more solid. On the right, the inking all appears solid, with the letters "postes/postage" appearing complete and unbroken.

These differences are not listed in Unitrade, nor are they specifically mentioned in the handbooks that I have seen that deal with this issue. However, I think you would agree that they are at least as significant as the type differences, and should be studied.

The 15c Mountain Sheep Stamp

On this stamp, there are just two layers of colour:

1. The brown photogravure, which comprises the grass and bodies of two sheep and rump of one, and is printed first, and,
2. The blue portion of the design, which is all engraved and printed on top of the brown.

On Type 1, the shading in the mountain, off to the horizon looks more or less even. On Type 2, there is a solid patch of colour in the centre of the mountain. Below is a close up to show the difference clearly:

On the left is type 2 and on the right, type 1. Most all of the type 1 stamps I have seen that come from plate 1 show semi-solid inking on the brown photogravure portion of the design. All of the type 2 stamps I have looked at show solid inking on the brown portions of the design.

The 20c Prairies Stamp

As stated in the beginning of this post, this stamp was only printed from plates 1 and 3, and there are no known type differences. There are just two layers of colour:

1. The orange colour, comprising most of the fields, which is printed first, by photogravure, and
2. The deep lilac colour, which comprises the contrast of the planted fields and the lettering. This is printed by engraving over top of the orange.

The orange colour always appears as a semi-solid inking, with screening dots being visible on all the printings that I examined, including those from plate 3.

The 25c Polar Bears Stamp

Unlike the 10c and 15c, where the lettering and engraving was printed by photogravure, the lettering on the 25c is engraved. The design consists of two layers of colour:

1. The azure coloured ice, which is printed first, by photogravure, and
2. The dark blue bears, waves and lettering, which is printed on top of the azure.

On the type 1 stamps, the shading both inside the bodies of the bears and in the shadows of the bears is more or less even in the middle, and a little darker around the edges. On the type 2 stamps, there is a heavy solid area inside each shadow and inside each body of each bear. A close up scan of these differences is shown below:

Type 1 is shown on the right, while type 2 is shown on the left.

All of the stamps that I looked at, whether or not they came from plate 1 or plate 3 (there was no plate 2 for this value) show azure that is almost solidly inked, with just a few screening dots visible at the edges.

The 50c Seashore Stamp

On this stamp there are three layers of colour:

1. The beige colour which represents the rock faces of the cliffs. This is printed first, using photogravure.

2. The blue colour of the ocean and the shadows on the rock faces. This is also printed using photogravure and is printed second.

3. The grey-green colour, which provides detail on the waves, the shading behind the lettering and the vegetation on top of the cliff. This is printed using engraving and is printed last.

On the type 1 stamps the blue is printed using very coarse screens, so that it appears light, and with screening dots that can clearly be seen under magnification. The lettering on type 1 stamps usually appears almost solid, but on the edges you can tell that they are printed from many, many dots placed close together. On type 2 stamps, most of the blue, especially the denser part of the water and the shading on the cliffs appears nearly solidly inked, and the lettering appears solidly inked. On the type 1 stamps, the beige colour appears almost solidly inked, whereas on the type 2 stamps it definitely appears solidly inked on all the stamps I examined.

The $1 Vancouver Stamp Printed by Photogravure and Engraving

This later printing of the $1, first issued in the fall of 1973, consists of four layers of colour:

1. Lilac, which provides depth to the rocks on the beach, the shading on the water and on some of the buildings in the skyline. This is printed by photogravure, and is printed first.

2. Green, which appears in the horizon for the greenery near the buildings and the rocks in the foreground is also printed by photogravure and is printed second.

3. Agate, or black brown, which is the dominant colour of the rocks is printed by photogravure and is printed third.

4. Finally, the grey-lilac blue, which forms the mountains, the lettering, some shading on the water and the buildings is engraved, and is printed last.

There are no type differences per-se, on this stamp, except that I have noticed instances in which the agate colour appears solidly inked, which it does on most stamps, others where the screening dots are clearly visible and still others from the later perf. 13.3 printing where the rocks appear out of focus and blurry.

These differences are shown in the close-up scans below:

This picture shows the agate shading that appears more or less solid on the rocks. This is how most of the perf. 12.5 x 12 stamps appear and how some of the first perf. 13.3 stamps appear.

At first this picture looks similar to above, but if you look closely, you can see the individual brown dots that comprise the shading. This is only found on the perf. 12.5 x 12 printings.

These are the blurry rocks that only appear on the last printings perforated 13.3.


A few constant varieties are listed in Unitrade, some of which are due to plate flaws, and others which are due to colour shifts.

The Scratch In The Mountain on the 15c Mountain Sheep

This variety occurs on position 10 of plate 1 only. Unfortunately, I have not come across an example I can scan, but it consists of a horizontal scratch through the top of the mountain at the upper right of the design.

The Brown Soil in "Canada" on the 15c Mountain Sheep

This occurs on position 94 of all sheets and is very similar to the vegetation invasion variety discussed below. A small smudge of brown appears inside the last "a" of "Canada". Again, I do not have an example I can illustrate at the moment.

The Blue Tail and Raised Rump Varieties on the 15c Mountain Sheep

This variety occurs due to a colour shift, and it involves the back of the sheep closest to the right side of the design. Normally the rump of the sheep is a smooth curve and the brown ink does not encroach on the blue ink and vice versa. A normal sheep looks like this:

Note how smooth the curve on the back end of the sheep appears.

Here is the blue tail variety:

This variety is caused by a rightward shift of the blue, causing the tail to detach from the rest of the rump and become visible.

Here is the raised rump variety:

Here, the rump appears disjointed. This is caused by a downward shift of the blue. Some might say that the brown is shifted up, but this isn't quite correct because the brown is clearly printed first, before the blue.

The Double Headed Sheep on the 15c Mountain Sheep

This variety is only listed by Unitrade as occurring on Type 2 and involves the first sheep from the left having what appears to be a double head. Unfortunately, the type 2 perf. 12.5 x 12 stamps are quite scarce, and I don't actually have any in my stock. So I am unable to show an example of it here, but it looks more or less like you would expect. According to Unitrade it results from a colour shift, but it is hard to see how this could be, given that the sheep is printed from a single colour.

The Siamese Bears on the 25c Polar Bears Stamp

Unitrade states that this variety is due to a colour shift, but that cannot be the case, because the variety involves the joining of the bears that were both printed by engraving at the same time. A close up scan shows the variety below:

As the scan shows clearly, the variety is due to a different shade of blue ink getting on the sheets during printing and causing the bears to appear to be joined.

The 50c Seashore Stamp

According to Unitrade, there are six minor constant plate varieties that occur on these stamps, four of which occur on type 1 stamps and two of which occur on type 2. Having never seen these varieties I had to to some research to find out what three of them are. But I was unable to find information on the other three. I would be very appreciative if any of my readers can shed some light onto what the missing varieties are and if they can provide examples:

1. A small blue dot appears inside the loop of the "5" of "50".

2. A horizontal scratch appears in the sky just above the central cliff and extends from the "O" of "Postes" to the bottom of the "5" of "50".

3. A blue dot between the scratch and the "t" of "Postes".

These varieties occur on positions 9 and 10 of the affected sheets. They are very light and difficult to see, which is why they aren't listed in Unitrade, I think. The scans below show examples of all three varieties, with varieties 2 and 3 occurring on the same stamp:

This scan shows the dot beneath the "t" of "Postes". The horizontal scratch is there too, but it is very light and you can only just make it out near the bottom, of the "5".

Here you can just see the small dot inside the "5" near the top of the inside curve.

The Type 2 perf. 12.5x 12 stamp also exists with what Unitrade calls the "Broken C". This variety involves a upward shift of the grey green into the blue water, causing the truncation of the "C" of "Canada" at the top. The scan below shows an example of this variety:

It is not a great image unfortunately, but it is the only one I could find.

The Short $1 Flaw and Dot After Postes on the $1 Vancouver

These varieties occur on positions 21, 22, 23 and 24 of all sheets of the lithographed printing of the $1. The Dot after Postes occurs on position 22, always in combination with the short $1 flaw. Basically with the normal stamp, the vertical line through the dollar sign extends all the way through on both sides. On the variety, the line does not extend beyond the top of the dollar sign. The high resolution scans below show the normal dollar sign and both varieties:

The normal dollar sign is shown on the left, while the short dollar sign is shown on the right.

This picture shows the dot after the "S" of "Postes" and the short dollar flaw.

The most popular way to collect these varieties is as a se-tenant strip of 5, which has four stamps with the varieties and the last stamp normal.

The Airplane in the Sky on the $2 Quebec

This variety, which occurs on plate 2 printings only, can be very easily missed if you are not looking for it, or do not not know what to look for. It is one of those varieties that looks clearer from afar than it does under magnification. It occurs on position 2 only, so it is always found in upper left plate blocks. Unitrade's illustration shows it as a black dash in the sky, but when you view it up close under magnification, it just looks like a light black smudge. The correct place to look for it is just above, and to the right of the third chimney from the left.

Other Varieties

I have come across some varieties which are not listed in Unitrade, but which occur with enough regularity that I feel that they deserve some mention here. They may or may not be constant, or at least semi-constant.

The "Vegetation Invasion" on the 10c

This variety I have only come across on the type 2 stamps. It consists of seepage of green ink into the white of the letters of "Canada" that make the letters appear as though vegetation is gradually encroaching it. Normally, the lettering for "Canada" is very sharp and clean, but on this variety it appears less sharp, as in the pictures below:

Here is the normal, clean lettering found on the type 2 stamps.

Here is the variety. Note how the blobs of green make it appear as though the letters are being overgrown by vegetation. I do not believe it to be a truly constant variety, as I have noted that it occurs in varying degrees of severity, with the above being one of the stronger examples. The scan shows two less severe examples, one from plate 2, and the other from plate 3, which is very minor indeed.

Here is the slightly less severe example of the variety that shows the ink being mainly confined to the "c", the "n" and the "d".

This is a very weak version of the variety, that just shows a small nick inside the lower half of the "C" of "Canada".

The "Bare Patch" on the 10c

I do not know if this is constant or not, but I have one example of type 1, in which there is a clear white patch in the green cross-hatched foliage where there would normally be solid colour. I believe that this may be due to a slight downward shift of the engraved colour. A close up scan showing the variety is shown below:

The Doubled Dollar Sign on the $1 Vancouver

I bought, quite some time ago, a pair of the $1 Vancouver, from the perf. 13.3 printing, in which one stamp shows distinct and partial doubling of the dollar sign on the left side. A close up scan is shown below:

I have no idea whether or not this is constant, as it is the first, and only example I have seen. I would greatly appreciate any input that readers can offer about it.

This concludes my examination of the type differences on the mid-values of the series and the constant and non-constant varieties on the mid-values and high values. Next week I will look at the low values and some of the varieties that can be found on those stamps.In the meantime I look forward to your comments and discussion

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Posted 01/16/2019   9:40 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add lithograving to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
Brixtonchrome, thanks for your very detailed study of this fascinating Canadian definitive series.
I hope this will generate new interest in modern Canadian stamps which I believe have been neglected on SCF and other stamp forums.

A minor thing I would like to point out is that when you write about the Ashton Potter
$1 and $2 values (Scott/Unitrade 600, 601) some readers might get the impression
that they were printed solely by lithography but in fact they were a combination printing.
AP printed the litho/offset portion and the British American Bank Note Company printed the engraved lettering and value.

Here is a scan of the $1 Plate Block showing the inscription on the

You mention after Plate Flaws "The most famous of these is the "short dollar" flaw, which occurs on the Ashton Potter printings of the $1"
Ironically the flaw is on the BABN engraved $ sign

Anyway great stuff and I'm looking forward to more of
your posts.

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Edited by lithograving - 01/23/2019 2:47 pm
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Posted 01/16/2019   11:04 pm  Show Profile Bookmark this reply Add lithograving to your friends list  Get a Link to this Reply
I haven't really looked at this series in probably over
30 years at a time when I had no internet nor a scanner.
Now it's fun going through these stamps again same as
when I first got them in the mail from the
Post Office Department, Philatelic Section,Ottawa.

Unitrade states in the footnote for the $2 Singles from plate 2 cannot be differentiated from plate 1 singles.

This is basically what I always thought also.
But looking and comparing the 2 plates again I think there are
very slight differences.

Here are the two plate blocks.

Scott/Unitrade 601 Plate 1

Scott/Unitrade 601 Plate 2

One difference I see is in the engraving of CANADA.
Plate 1 has mottled lettering, raised bumps while on Plate 2
the letters appear smoother.
For some reason this is more evident with a low power magnifying
glass than on this scan below.

Plate 1 on top of plate 2

Plate 1

Plate 2

The interesting part though is in the make up of the individual rosettes.
On plate 1 most green rosettes in the area around the da have
light centers whereas on Plate 2 they have dark dots for centers.
Same goes for some of the green roofs and also for the blue
in the hills, below postes/postage.

I only have these 2 PBs and a single of each so this isn't conclusive
obviously but if other collectors check their stock then maybe
we will get the answers.

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